Unpublished Research

Unpublished Research Unpublished Research


Unpublished EP Research

This section contains a listing of recent research in Energy Psychology in reverse chronological order. Please note that these studies have neither been published, nor peer-reviewed.

Revised January 2010.

A Randomised Clinical Trial of a Meridian-Based Intervention for Food Cravings.

Stapleton, P.; Sheldon, T.; Porter, B.; Whitty, J.2009, unpublished research study, submitted for publication.

Correspondence to Dr Peta Stapleton, Senior Lecturer, School of Medicine, Griffith University, Logan Campus, Queensland, 4131, Australia. Email: p.stapleton@griffith.edu.au.
Objective: Food craving was hypothesised to be an important intervening causal variable in the development of obesity. This randomised, single-blind, clinical trial tested whether The Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) reduced food cravings in participants under laboratory-controlled conditions.

Method: Study involved ninety-six overweight or obese adults who were allocated to the EFT treatment or 4-week waitlist condition. The waitlist condition received treatment after completion of the test period. Degree of food craving, perceived power of food, restraint capabilities and psychological symptoms were assessed pre- and post- a four week EFT treatment program (mixed method ANOVA comparative analysis), and at 6-month follow-up (repeated measure ANOVA with group data collapsed).

Results: EFT was associated with a significantly greater improvement in food cravings, the subjective power of food and craving restraint than waitlist from pre- to immediately post-test (p

Conclusion: EFT can have an immediate effect on reducing food cravings, result in maintaining reduced cravings over time and this addition to weight loss/dietary programs may result in assisting people to achieve and maintain reduced food cravings.

A Feasibility Study of EFT Taught as Curriculum for Secondary School Students as a Stress Reduction and Performance Enhancement Tool.

Ledger, Karen.July 2009, unpublished research study.

This study examined the effects of teaching EFT to 140 students in five class groups (25 – 30 students per class) of combined grades 10 – 12. All students were taught EFT in four, 80 minute sessions, as part of general class curriculum. The initial controlled study included two EFT intervention class groups and two control class groups. In the controlled portion of the study, Quantitative measures of stress (Brief COPE) and test anxiety (Westside TA) showed no statistically significant differences between control groups and subject groups for stress or test anxiety. (One major drawback regarding this aspect of the study was that not all students had formal exams at this time.)

Qualitative reports from students in all classes, following instruction in EFT, indicated a range of significant benefits for many students in: enhancing study and exam preparation; writing exams; a range of athletic and artistic performance, and self-esteem. Between 11% – 55% of students per class (Mean ~ 30 %) indicated they used EFT with good effect for other stressors in their lives such as parental conflict, anger management, sleep difficulties, self-calming and to enhance thinking. (see comments below).

In the Qualitative reports, students were (sometimes brutally) honest regarding both their positive and negative opinions about EFT and the challenges of learning EFT in a class setting. Many cited negativity of some peers and embarrassment about sharing feelings around peers as a major deterrent. Most interesting was that even in the most negative class groups, at least 50% were in favour of EFT being taught in schools, with the most positive class group voting 91% in favour of EFT being taught in schools. The majority suggested EFT would best be learned in smaller group sessions, and recommended it be taught to younger students, whom they felt would be more open to it. The highly positive Qualitative student responses indicate that a further study of EFT being taught in schools should be pursued.

April 30, 2008 (Portland, OR.) – Kaiser Permanente’s Center for Health Research has received a $2.1 million grant from the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine to study the effectiveness of a technique combining self-acupressure with mental imagery to help people maintain weight loss.

The Center is seeking about 500 overweight people to participate in the LIFE study which will test the Tapas Acupressure Technique™ (TAT). TAT involves lightly touching specific pressure points on your face and the back of your head. While holding these points for a few seconds or minutes you are asked to focus on a problem, in this case on losing weight or maintaining weight loss.

“The Tapas Acupressure Technique did show superiority in helping people maintain weight loss in a pilot study involving 90 participants,” says Charles Elder, MD, principal investigator and an internal medicine physician at Kaiser Permanente Northwest. In the pilot study, the TAT group maintained greater weight loss than a social support group, and another group that practiced the Chinese exercise and breathing technique known as Qigong.

People who join the LIFE study will attend weekly group meetings for six months to learn how to lose weight by eating a healthy diet and exercising regularly. Participants who lose at least 10 pounds during this first phase of the study will be randomly assigned to a social support group led by a weight loss counsellor or to the Tapas Acupressure group led by a certified instructor. Over the next six months the groups will meet eight times. Once the meetings have stopped participants in both groups will be followed for another six months. Then the groups will be compared to determine which method helps people maintain their weight loss more effectively.

This randomized clinical trial evaluates the efficacy of TAT(Tapas Acupressure Technique) compared to a Social Support (SS) group for the primary outcome of weight loss maintenance. We recruit obese adults from the Kaiser Permanente North West managed care setting. Those who meet eligibility criteria are entered into an intensive six-month weekly group-based behavioural weight loss program. Those who meet threshold weight loss criteria (n=~288) are randomly assigned to either TAT instruction or social support group.
Participants in both groups attend the same schedule of group meetings with parallel contact hours. Participants in the TAT group are advised to practice the technique at home. Participants are weighed and questionnaires administered at entry, randomization, and at 12 and 18 months post entry. The main outcome measure is weight at 18 months.

“If the results of the LIFE study show that TAT significantly improves weight loss maintenance, it could become a standard intervention in conventional medical care settings as well as health education programs,” says Elder. “It is a low-cost intervention that could appeal to many people who struggle with weight loss.”




Effects of EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) On Performance of Student Athletes.

Betsy B. Muller, MBA, C.EHP, Certified Energy Coach.2007, unpublished research study.

An investigation was initiated to determine if EFT could offer measurable benefits for student athletes within a very short period of time. Volunteers for the study were selected through a contest publicized via a press release to local newspapers. Three student athletes were selected based upon a written application including an essay about why they were interested in trying EFT. All participants agreed to participate in 4 weekly one-hour sessions using EFT. Participants were provided with hand-outs on the EFT and a tapping point chart. EFT interventions were used during each session and the athletes were encouraged to use EFT on their own between sessions.

Each participant completed the SA-45, Beck Anxiety Inventory and a 3 minute assessment of Heart Rate Variability/Coherence using Heart Math’s emWave PC. Measurements were taken prior to EFT intervention and at the end of the 4th session.

As few as 4 hours of training and in-office EFT intervention made a significant difference in standard measures of stress and anxiety experienced by three student athletes. All three students experienced decreases in their SA-45 scores (8-28% reduction), Beck Anxiety Inventory (10-71% decrease) and % of 3 minute Heart Math session in “low” coherence (32-92% reduction). All three individuals utilized EFT to assist with issues off the field and reported overall success in managing daily stress. Sports performance during the 4 week period was difficult to measure due to the off season and the relatively short time frame. Further monitoring of these athletes will continue at 3 month intervals to determine long-term benefits.